Examples include molarityvolume fractionand mole fraction. Solubilities of Ionic Substances in Liquids Previouslyyou were introduced to guidelines for predicting the solubility of ionic compounds in water.
Main articles: Solubility and Solvation The ability of one compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility. Solvent vapors can also be found in supposedly empty drums and cans, posing a flash fire hazard; hence empty containers of volatile solvents should be stored open and upside down.
If the solvent is water, hydration occurs when the charged solute ions become surrounded by water molecules. Explosive peroxide formation[ edit ] Ethers like diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran THF can form highly explosive organic peroxides upon exposure to oxygen and light.
Because of its high polarity, water is the most common solvent for ionic compounds. If interactions are unfavorable, then the free energy decreases with increasing solute concentration. For example, occupational exposure to organic solvents has been associated with higher numbers of painters suffering from alcoholism.
In the case of polymers, the Raoult's law assumption is replaced with one developed by the Flory-Huggins theory of solutions. Diethyl ether, chloroform, and many other solvents e. Fire[ edit ] Most organic solvents are flammable or highly flammable, depending on their volatility.