But all dichotomies are arbitrary. However, if it becomes too scarce, it leads often to a conflict, and can reduce collective value. On the one hand, the idea that science in the sense of exact science exhausts rationality is seen to be a self-stultifying error. Amoralism claims that good and evil are meaningless, that there is no moral ingredient in nature.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Welfarist theories[ edit ] Welfarist theories of value say things that are good are such because of their positive effects on human well-being.
He cites the use of language in Nazi Germany as being a key to how the German people were able to do things to other human beings that they normally would not do. Meher Baba proposed that it is not the satisfaction of desires that motivates the agent but rather "a desire to be free from the limitation of all desires.
There are an infinite number of ways to divide that list, just as there are an infinite number of ways to divide anything. This certainly flatters our vanity.
According to Peck, an evil person:   Is consistently self-deceiving, with the intent of avoiding guilt and maintaining a self-image of perfection Deceives others as a consequence of their own self-deception Psychologically projects his or her evils and sins onto very specific targets, scapegoating those targets while treating everyone else normally "their insensitivity toward him was selective"  Commonly hates with the pretense of love, for the purposes of self-deception as much as the deception of others Abuses political or emotional power "the imposition of one's will upon others by overt or covert coercion"  Maintains a high level of respectability and lies incessantly in order to do so.
There are at least two basic ways of presenting a theory of value, based on two different kinds of questions: What do people find good, and what do they despise? But almost nothing we dichotomize is truly divided into two piles. Desire satisfaction may occur without the agent's awareness of the satisfaction of the desire.
For example, in both economics and in folk wisdom, the value of something seems to rise so long as it is relatively scarce.