List[ edit ] The following is a list of irregular verbs that are commonly used in standard modern English. The only ones in normal use are begin—began—begun and forsake—forsook—forsaken these both derive from prefixed verbs whose unprefixed forms have not survived into Modern English.
Some originally weak verbs have taken on strong-type forms by analogy with strong verbs. In a few cases, however, analogy has operated in the other direction a verb's irregular forms arose by analogy with existing irregular verbs. However, even some strong verbs have identical past tense and participle, as in cling—clung—clung.
The verb do, which has the reduplicated form did for its past tense an irregularity that can be traced back to Proto-Germanic. The spelling -t following a voiceless consonant is retained for verbs that display an irregularity, as in kept and cost.
Anomalous cases[ edit ] The following verbs do not fit exactly into any of the above categories: The modal verbswhich are defective verbs — they have only a present indicative form and in some cases a preterite, lacking nonfinite forms infinitives, participles, gerundsimperativesand subjunctives although some uses of the preterites are sometimes identified as subjunctives.
Because of these problems, in this list, they are indicated as such. The force of analogy tends to reduce the number of irregular verbs over time, as irregular verbs switch to regular conjugation patterns for instance, the verb chide once had the irregular past tense chid, but this has given way to the regular formation chided.
Verbs with coalescence of consonants and vowel shortening: bleed, breed, feed, lead, light, meet, read past tense and past participle also spelt read, but pronounced with a short voweland speed.